Games Technology

Fullmetal Alchemist Is A Good, Piercing Critique Of Capitalism

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Earlier this 12 months, Hiromu Arakawa’s Fullmetal Alchemist celebrated its twentieth anniversary, and after lately re-reading the manga, I can confidently say it’s nonetheless probably the greatest items of artwork and storytelling ever created—simply as impactful, and related, as when it was first launched. The sequence has captured many, from seasoned anime and manga followers to novices who’ve had it advisable to them as a “gateway” sequence into anime and manga. Nevertheless it’s not only a well-crafted, charming story of two brothers’ journey to regain their our bodies; it’s additionally an intricately crafted criticism of capitalism, one during which practically each side of the story works to help this allegory so skillfully and elegantly that it elevates the sequence to the extent of masterpiece.

The Fact That Lies Inside The Fact

The sequence follows brothers Edward and Alphonse Elric, who tried to convey their mom again to life utilizing Alchemy—the science of understanding, deconstructing and reconstructing matter—the failed transmutation leaving Ed with out his arm and leg and Al with no physique, his soul bonded to an empty swimsuit of armor. With the intention to get their our bodies again, the brothers seek for the Thinker’s Stone, an object that grants the ability to transmute with out equal alternate, the ironclad alchemic legislation stating that with a view to acquire one thing, one thing of equal worth have to be misplaced. In pursuit of this purpose, Ed turns into a State Alchemist of Amestris: alchemists who get authorities certification, entry to data, and a constant wage at the price of being a “canine of the navy.” In different phrases, they are often known as upon to show their work, or themselves, into weapons for the acquire of their nation.

Throughout their journey, they encounter Dr. Marcoh, a former State Alchemist who researched Thinker’s Stones. He presents his coded analysis to the brothers and urges them to achieve “the reality that lies inside the fact.” This line refers to each decoding the analysis and transferring ahead from its fact, however it’s additionally Arakawa prompting you, the reader, to hunt the reality behind the reality as effectively, to research the story, to hunt the that means behind it.

It’s necessary that this occurs earlier than Ed and Al uncover the reality inside Marcoh’s analysis, that Thinker’s Stones are made by sacrificing human lives, as a result of once they do, you are actually primed to query what their findings imply within the context of the bigger story. While you do, you’ll be able to learn Fullmetal Alchemist to be an allegory for capitalism—particularly, capitalism as a type of fascism. Via practically each facet of the manga (the story, the worldbuilding, the lore, the characters and their actions and arcs), the sequence explores and defines the intricate, advanced, layered methods during which structural methods of oppression take from the various to present to the few.

The central brothers are seen in their youth in a moment from Fullmetal Alchemist.

Picture: Bones

Manga and anime storytelling typically forgo subtlety, taking massive swings early on with their themes, laying out every little thing early to allow them to broaden the scope of what they’re attempting to say. That boldness is usually probably the most interesting qualities of those tales, and Fullmetal Alchemist is a primary instance.

The next chapters present Ed and Al taking down a corrupt navy officer who’s exploiting a mining city, adopted by a train-hijacking villain generally known as Bald. These chapters serve to indicate Ed and Al’s tenacity, wits, expertise, and the truth that they’re protagonists who can, and will, take down these doing hurt.

Within the following chapter we meet Shou Tucker, who invitations Ed and Al into his dwelling to review his bio-alchemic work. In a darkish flip, this seemingly sort and caring father transmutes his daughter Nina and her canine right into a speaking chimera in a corrupted try to take care of his illustrious State Alchemist standing, a title and place that’s each coveted and stands as the primary manner for alchemists to make a residing off of their research. This chapter serves to inform the brothers, and us, to not belief each pleasant face. Moreover, it ties into the seek for the reality inside the fact: Who can Ed and Al belief when the federal government was sacrificing people to make thinker’s stones?

These are the large swings, the laying out of plot and theme parts to allow them to be explored on a bigger, extra layered and complex scale. Let’s dive into these layers.

Fullmetal Alchemist's central characters are seen, with Alphonse as a suit of armor.

Picture: Bones

Alchemy is consultant of labor; in actual fact, it’s actually a type of labor on the planet of the story. If you wish to get extra particular, alchemy is labor below capitalism and/or fascism, not valued except it makes cash or serves the navy/authorities; alchemists actually need to develop into “canine of the navy” to be paid effectively and have entry to sources.

Now, take into consideration the creation of a thinker’s stone, made by sacrificing human lives. It’s not arduous to see this as a type of labor exploitation or wage theft. These in energy profit from the sacrifices of others, plain and easy. A thinker’s stone itself in flip represents extreme wealth and the ability that comes with it. The stone, like nice wealth, doesn’t negate the worth of a transmutation, it simply pays for it with the sacrifice of others. The obscenely rich don’t pay much less for his or her extravagant existence, they simply have a lot ill-gotten wealth that their purchases are a drop within the bucket. Moreover, poisoning the earth doesn’t have an effect on them, since they’ve used the sacrifices of others to make sure they by no means need to sacrifice their very own consolation.

On this allegory, human transmutation is, in some type, making an attempt to make use of capitalism’s instruments, mindset, and values to achieve one thing for your self. It’s not, nevertheless, the immoral intentions of the wealthy to easily amass increasingly that drive this act. Fairly, it’s the straightforward notion of desirous to get your fair proportion, and incorrectly believing, due to seemingly “truthful” however really hole rules like equal alternate, that capitalist instruments and strategies are the way in which to do it.

Ed and Al try and resurrect their mom, offering their transmutation with the entire literal, bodily substances that make up a human. However a human additionally has a soul, a price that can’t be decided or quantified, so the “equal alternate” is incomplete. Subsequently, one thing needed to be taken. Making an attempt to see individuals as simply uncooked materials for use nevertheless one sees match as a substitute of as entire beings in and of themselves, with a thoughts, physique, soul, and intrinsic worth, is the attitude of capitalists, and the brothers, replicating that mindset in ignorance, had been punished for it.

That is the place “The Fact” is available in. The reality is that sure, there’s a legislation of equal alternate, however it’s extra literal and, effectively, truthful. In case you are attempting to make 11 with 10, The Fact will take the additional 1 from someplace, be it Ed’s leg or Al’s physique. Those that have tried human transmutation pay a value, however those that pay the worth with others’ sacrifices go unpunished, even gaining nice energy. Capitalism punishes the lower-class and impoverished who attempt to “break the principles,” (say, stealing meals as a result of they’re ravenous) however actually offers rewards to the wealthy who do related or worse types of rule-breaking (harvesting immense wealth from the labor of individuals they work to the bone and pay a pittance, as an example). The rich work round having to pay any toll themselves by making others take the punishment for them.

Energy, Sacrifice, And Who Pays The Value

Now let’s take into consideration Father, the immortal secret ruler of Amestris and the primary villain of the story. Father was as soon as generally known as “the dwarf within the flask,” a homunculus (a being or human created by alchemy) constituted of the blood of Van Hohenheim, Ed and Al’s father who was born as a slave within the historic metropolis of Xerxes. After turning all of Xerxes right into a thinker’s stone that he and Hohenheim cut up, Father gained a humanoid type and the 2 turned functionally immortal, additionally able to transmuting something whatever the value. However, like every member of the wealthy elite, Father needed extra.

Father went on to discovered the nation of Amestris for the only real objective of increasing its borders, inflicting huge, bloody conflicts alongside the way in which and carving an enormous transmutation circle underground in order that he may sacrifice the thousands and thousands of lives of Amestris to make use of as energy to take up and comprise the ability of god. Billionaires basically need the identical, looking for “the ability of god” within the type of hoarded, ill-gotten wealth, bribing and lobbying the federal government to make sure their machinations of greed go unhindered. Moreover, he locations a puppet in energy, Wrath, certainly one of many Homunculi he created. Wrath is thought to the general public as his human guise, President Fuhrer King Bradley. This technique of energy displays how the leaders of many international locations could pay lip service to the thought of serving all residents whereas in reality sustaining a system that serves the wealthy.

Edward is seen looking at an older man in a moment from Fullmetal Alchemist.

Picture: Bones

In Amestris, the navy and police implement Father’s rule and protect the established order, and his underworld enforcers snuff out dissenters that would spark revolution, like Maes Hughes. Heck, even the alchemy of Amestris has limiters positioned on it—a block on how a lot tectonic vitality alchemists can entry for his or her transmutations, representing how the poor and dealing class have restricted entry to sources that might enable them a fair proportion of wealth and safety.

Father being a small creature stealing the ability of others can be a fairly clear and biting commentary on fascists and the insanely rich: They’re small-minded individuals, taking what others have created or cashing in on their sacrifice.

Amestrian officers and navy police serve to implement the pursuits of the ruling class, and the Homunculi serve an identical position—a “vital evil” that’s “eliminated” from these in cost. Moreover, that is Father merely having others do the work for him right here. He has achieved not one of the labor himself and has even had others shoulder the burden of genocide and conflict so he can have much more energy.

Actually, Father is actually utilizing others’ loss as “fee” within the type of his “human sacrifices,” individuals who have paid a toll to see “the reality” and whom he wants with a view to activate his nation-wide transmutation circle; Ed and Al, who misplaced their leg and physique attempting to convey their mom again; Izumi, who misplaced a few of her inner organs attempting to convey her stillborn baby again; Hohenheim, who misplaced his humanity by Father’s manipulation; and Roy Mustang, who was pressured to open the “Gate of Fact,” and pay the toll together with his eyesight. Their losses are his acquire, plain and easy.

However sacrifices will be voluntary or pressured, used for good or for evil. Consider how characters use thinker’s stones in another way. Father makes use of his stone and energy to achieve extra energy, giving little thought to the place the ability will come from, involved solely together with his have to take it. Hohenheim does the other. Hohenheim communes with the souls inside them, will get to know them, talks to them and understands their particular person hopes and desires. He treats them like people and, as a fellow human, asks to make use of their souls (which don’t have any our bodies to return to) to cease the one that did this to them within the first place, making a counter transmutation circle to return Amestrian souls again to their our bodies after Father absorbs the ability of god, weakening him.

Ed is seen appearing to dramatically pull a red cover off of something in a moment from Fullmetal Alchemist.

Picture: Bones

Ed and Al refuse to make use of a stone to get their our bodies again after studying how they’re made. Nonetheless, they’re each pushed to make use of stones in some unspecified time in the future. Ed makes use of Envy’s stone to get him, Ling and himself out of Gluttony’s bizarre abdomen dimension, and Al makes use of certainly one of Kimblee’s discarded stones to make the combat in opposition to Pleasure slightly extra truthful. In each cases, the brothers really feel deep guilt and search to apologize to the souls they’re utilizing, or to make sure that their souls is not going to be used for evil functions, however reasonably to combat evil.

The place Father sees these souls as an influence supply, Ed, Al and Hohenheim search to see and deal with them because the people they had been, to acknowledge their sacrifice and use it for good, not greed. The working-class, on a regular basis residents worth the immeasurable value of a human soul, whereas the grasping and highly effective don’t; they solely worth how these souls can profit them, one thing relevant to each people and {dollars} below capitalism.


That is simply the tip of the iceberg. The manga’s criticisms and observations of the intricate and complicated methods during which capitalism takes from the various to learn the few are current in each element and idea that play a component within the bigger story. The futuristic prosthetics generally known as Automail signify the disabled and the overwhelming strain individuals typically face to get again into the workforce as quickly as potential, even when they’re affected by continual ache, sickness or incapacity. Mechanics of automail limbs serve the position of healers (like medical doctors or nurses) who’re vital each to human well being and, sadly, to sustaining components of the capitalist machine. The Homunculi are born of Father, faraway from him, and in flip signify how the rich imagine themselves to be excellent—Greed specifically representing the complexity of need and want in a capitalistic society that morally punishes wanting something past primary wants.

Shou Tucker and Colonel Roy Mustang are each individuals far too invested within the system and recreation of capitalism to see one other manner out, Tucker believing standing and acquire to be extra necessary than his personal daughter, and Mustang falsely believing he can repair the issues of Amestris inside a system constructed solely to learn the highly effective. There’s even a serious thematic thread regarding Al’s physique and human autonomy below capitalism, these in energy seeing his tireless and immortal armor physique as a profit whereas he, the person, sees it as a chilly, unfeeling, hellish existence.


All of this provides as much as a manga that’s not merely an allegory for capitalism, however one which’s stridently anti-capitalist. At each flip, Arakawa is making clear statements on the banality of the evil individuals driving capitalism (Father is a tragic little creature making himself massive and highly effective by stealing energy from others) and the way solely collective motion and selfless, voluntary sacrifice can convey them down.

Two figures stand on a roof looking out at a green, natural landscape.

Picture: Bones

The sequence’ remaining combat addresses this. Al voluntarily sacrifices his soul so Ed can have his arm again and end the combat in opposition to Father. It is a sacrifice Al chooses to make, one borne from good and love and kindness reasonably than a lust for energy. Ed returns the favor, giving up his capability to make use of alchemy in alternate for Al getting his physique and soul again; he not solely makes a selfless, voluntary sacrifice for somebody he loves, however he concurrently casts away a symbolic device of capitalism, creating an ideal thematic end result of the sequence’ allegory. There’s even a implausible endcap depicting Ed working together with his arms on the roof of childhood good friend/automail mechanic Winry Rockbell, appreciating the professionals and cons of it. It’s powerful, however he has a good looking view of the countryside from up there, one thing he by no means would have gotten if he’d simply used alchemy to repair it. It’s excellent.

Moreover, and maybe extra importantly, on the finish of all of it, Ed and Al are starting to rethink equal alternate. Not is it “take ten, give ten.” They now consider it as “take ten, add your one, give eleven.” They method alchemy, a illustration of labor, with the proper worth of labor in thoughts, the additional a part of the equation added by the alchemist or laborer himself.